What is Infant Mortality?
According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),the death of a baby before his or her first birthday is called infant mortality. The infant mortality rate is an estimate of the number of infant deaths for every 1,000 live births.
Why Does It Happen?
Infant mortality is driven by both health and social factors. These social factors are called the “social determinants of health.” Social factors can affect women’s health before and during pregnancy, as well as the health of her baby. Examples of social factors include gender, discrimination, exposure to crime and violence, access to resources to meet basic needs, income, and level of daily stress.
Some of the things that affect infant survival include:
– Poor prenatal care: When a pregnant woman does not receive any prenatal care or if care only began during the third trimester, it can hurt the baby’s health. In Detroit, mothers of 6 out of every 10 infants that die did not receive suitable prenatal care.
– Race: Infant mortality rates for black women are typically 1 ½ to 2 times higher than for white women. There are many possible reasons for this. Black women often experience more stress related to race and gender, poorer nutrition, and not receiving suitable prenatal healthcare . These and other factors can lead to higher rates of low birth weight, premature birth, and maternal complications during pregnancy.
– Maternal Education: Infant mortality rates are higher among infants born to women with less than a high school degree.
– Low birth weight: Babies born weighing under 5.5 pounds are more likely to have health problems.
– Premature birth: Babies born after less than 37 weeks of pregnancy are more likely to have health problems.
– Birth defects
– Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Infant Mortality in Detroit
Infant mortality is often used as a measure of the health of the general population. The things that affect the health of the community also impact infant survival.
For every 1,000 babies born alive in the United States, about 6 die before their first birthday. But in Detroit, that number is higher. In Detroit, for every 1,000 live births an average of 15 infants don’t survive to their first birthday. The WIN Network: Detroit was established to help address these shocking rates and to offer support to the women of this city.